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Lethality for Cranial and Face Traumas in Brazil, between 2000 and 2015


  • Alicia Picapedra FO-UDELAR
  • Karla Frichembruder FO-UFRGS
  • Carlos Sassi FOP-UNICAMP
  • Ramón Álvarez-Vaz Instituto de Estadística, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración - UDELAR
  • Fernando Hugo FO-UFRGS



trauma, craniofacial, morbidity, mortality


The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and temporal trends of head and face trauma, in Brazil, between 2000 and 2015. This is a retrospective epidemiological study based on secondary data obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian National Health System, we analyzed the total number of hospitalizations and deaths, those resulting from injuries and head and face trauma in Brazil and its five macro-regions, the 26 states and the Federal District, through multivariate statistical techniques, cluster methodology on trajectory analysis for longitudinal data, using the R package kml. We observed that the overall hospitalization rate decreased over the period studied, while the mortality rate gradually increased, with both rates varying in 2008. Hospitalizations for head and face trauma and deaths by sex were 4:1 and 6:1 for males, respectively. The largest number of hospitalizations occurred in the Southeast macro-region, 40.3% (183,727). The most compromised age group was 20 to 29 years old. Mandible fractures accounted for 33.5% of hospitalizations, followed by malar and maxillary fractures (26%) and nasal bone fractures (19.2%), but vault fractures were responsible for the highest number of deaths (37%). The lethality rate decreased for both sexes in all macroregions, except for the North where there was an increase. It is expected that this study may have repercussions on epidemiological indices and on prevention actions, due to injuries mortality and head and face trauma.


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Author Biography

Ramón Álvarez-Vaz, Instituto de Estadística, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración - UDELAR

My undergraduate training is in Statistics and postgraduate in Epidemiology (Master's) and Health Sciences (PhD).
I currently work at the Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración de la Universidad de la República, Uruguay. I do research in Applied Statistics, among other topics, to Marketing, Finance, Public Health Economics and Epidemiology, as well as statistical modeling in Demography and Actuarial problems. My work has several lines that revolve around the use and incorporation of statistical tools suitable for research in the field of all these disciplines. This implies adapting, their correct use, the statistical methods of supervised and unsupervised learning, sampling, time series, multilevel analysis, network analysis, agent-based models, simulation and Bayesian methods, among others.



How to Cite

Picapedra, A., Frichembruder, K., Sassi, C., Álvarez-Vaz, R., & Hugo, F. (2023). Lethality for Cranial and Face Traumas in Brazil, between 2000 and 2015. In SciELO Preprints.


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Data statement

  • The research data is contained in the manuscript

  • The research data is available in one or more data repository(ies)