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immunoinflammation, covid19, immunoprofile, iceberg, cytokine, storm


SARS-Cov-2 is a virus easily transmitted by air and fomites causing  acute severe respiratory syndrome. Severity in some cases requires hospitalization and complex expensive intensive care treatments. Its rampant contagious led to a a fearful pandemic affecting the whole world with millions of infected humans and almost half a million deaths in a few months in the beginning of 2020 (until June 17, 2020). SARS-Cov2 is likely to have been spilled over from natural sylvatic cycles in bats from China.

Our purpose is to comment on the human individual immune inflammatory responses to the infection of SARS-Cov2 and the reflections of these individual immunoinflammatory profiles on patterns of the severity of the disease, time for therapeutical intervention, pathogenesis, candidate drugs and indicative comparative drug prices for covid-19.

Efficient treatment  for covid-19 may require: 1) early disease detection, 2) a combination of drugs being used for 3) targeting the virus replication cycle and 4) specific/ individualized drug treatment for given immunoinflammatory human profile responses in a 5) timely manner.

Specific serum immuno-markers of covid-19 affected individuals at onset, in the follow-up, and in the resolution of the immunoinflammatory storm during the course of the disease may lead to individualized therapeutics with better outcomes. 

Covid-19 is unlikely to be the last emergent human disease with fast pandemic potencial. To gather knowledge on the human host profiles and immunoinflamatory responses is an opportunity that could pave the way to faster, more efficient strategies to tackle upcoming diseases.


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Author Biographies

Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas, FIOCRUZ & Geniac - Academia de Gênios

PhD in Molecular Biology.

Carolina Muruci-Cruz, Independent

Medical Doctor. Independent.

Luiz Fernando Dale, Clinica Dale

Medical Doctor.

Luis Eduardo da Cruz, Axis Biotec Brazil


Jorge Kalil, USP

Medical Doctor.



How to Cite

Rosa-Freitas, M. G., Muruci-Cruz, C., Dale, L. F., Cruz, L. E. da, & Kalil, J. . (2020). COVID-19: UNCOVERING INDIVIDUALITY. In SciELO Preprints.


Health Sciences