Preprint / Version 1

INFLAMMATORY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY OF COVID-19 AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE SEVERITY OF THE DISEASE

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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/SciELOPreprints.7798

Keywords:

COVID-19, Cytokines, Cellular Immunity, Severity of the Disease, Biomarkers

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2, which caused the coronavirus pandemic in 2019 (COVID-19), is a beta-coronavirus, and its infection in host cells can activate innate and adaptive immune responses through the activation of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, in this study we established the relationship between the severity and immunopathology of COVID-19 through the main inflammatory cytokines. Results show that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukins (IL), such as IL-6, are stimulated by the activation of T cell subsets, which results in immune-mediated cellular destruction. Several cytokines reduce the immune response and predispose to a pro-inflammatory and auto-reactive state, including IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, and associated inflammatory markers (LDH, GM-CSF and VEGF). These higher cytokine levels end up favoring tissue damage in multiple systems, including lungs, heart, gastrointestinal, brain, kidneys and other organs. Increasingly, a greater impact of the markers IL-6, ferritin, pro-calcitonin, lactic dehydrogenase, D-dimer and hypoalbuminemia was observed in patients with severe infection of the disease. In general, the data analyzed confirmed that COVID-19 severity is not caused simply by the viral infection, but rather by immune response and aberrant inflammation. In this way, this study allows a contribution to clinical practice, and it shows that it is essential to carry out in-depth studies about the immunopathology of COVID-19, in order to determine the severity markers involved in the pathogenesis of the viral infection.

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Posted

01/04/2024

How to Cite

Leal, G. G., Furlan, F. R., Vilela, M. F. de C., & Dellalibera-Joviliano, R. (2024). INFLAMMATORY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY OF COVID-19 AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE SEVERITY OF THE DISEASE. In SciELO Preprints. https://doi.org/10.1590/SciELOPreprints.7798

Section

Health Sciences

Plaudit

Data statement

  • The research data is contained in the manuscript