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Cognitive Skills as Predictors of Arithmetic Performance of 3rd and 4th graders




predictive skills, arithmetic achievement, number transcoding, quantitative reasoning, phonemic awareness


This study aims to investigate the relations of general and specific domain skills as predictors of arithmetic achievement. For this, 127 students in 3rd and 4th grades were evaluated on the following skills: working memory, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, number transcoding, number line estimation and quantitative reasoning. These cognitive skills were assessed in two moments, at the beginning and at the end of the school year, and in this second moment the students' arithmetic achievement was also assessed. Results indicated a direct influence specifically of number transcoding, quantitative reasoning, and phonemic awareness on arithmetic performance. In addition, findings showed that number transcoding is a mediator in the relation between quantitative reasoning and phonemic awareness with arithmetic performance. With this, we emphasize the importance of general and specific skills for students' arithmetic performance. Also, we highlight the prioritization of teaching based on the understanding of the number system and the relations between quantities (quantitative reasoning) for arithmetic learning, as well as for the prevention of future mathematical difficulties.


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How to Cite

Nogues, C. P., Jardim, F. dos S., Lima, E. M., & Dorneles, B. V. (2021). Cognitive Skills as Predictors of Arithmetic Performance of 3rd and 4th graders. In SciELO Preprints.


Human Sciences